VIRGINIA BROERSMA

Beach Bodies: The Dysmorphic Abstractions of Virginia Broersma

Posted on October 20, 2016

This essay was commissioned by Peripheral Vision Arts through their Publication Fellowship program. My sincere thanks to PVA for awarding me the inauguaral Fellowship and to Grace Linden for writing such an exceptional essay about my work. 

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Bouquet

Figure 1: Virginia Broersma, Myself As A Bouquet (For You), Oil on canvas, 45 x 36 inches, 2015

  

Beach Bodies: The Dysmorphic Abstractions of Virginia Broersma

by Grace Linden

 

Virginia Broersma does not remember when she first became aware of appearance. But feelings about her own body and bodies more generally, have been “locked…into [her] psyche”[1] since she was a teenager. She explains, “My image of my own body has always been linked to what others think of me and their standards.”[2] Broersma’s artistic practice, consequently, has been an effort to resolve these views.

Broersma is a painter in the traditional sense. Her brushwork is gestural and sweeping, and extends to the edges of the canvas. The colors are layered, bright, and multi-hued, and the impasto technique coupled with the rich tones adds texture to the canvas. All of these painterly methods put Broersma’s treatment of the body, specifically the female body, in dialogue with paintings of the past. Consider her 2014 painting Sunbather (Odalisque) [Fig. 2], part of the series Dythrambic, in which an abstracted nude figure sprawls across a beach. A rounded stomach fixes the body while the limbs – too many to count! – radiate outwards. There is a long tradition of odalisques in art’s history and such paintings show a nude, reclining figure at the center of the canvas, often flanked by an attendant.  By titling her painting Sunbather (Odalisque), Broersma overtly situates her composition within this traditional art historical genre and its related discourses.

 

Sunbather_for_pv 

Figure 2: Sunbather (Odalisque), Oil on canvas, 60 x 90 inches, 2014 

 

From French, odalisque translates to a "female slave" or "concubine" in a harem, particular to Ottoman Turkey. Implicit in the definition is a sense of ownership: the nude female is to be gazed upon by men, and owned within that gaze.  The abstraction of the body, however, allows Broersma to subvert this relationship. While the figure is most likely female, evinced by the genitalia and curved thighs, the many flailing limbs transform the lower body into a gnarled, root-like mass, a sea creature stranded on land.  

Broersma’s practice explores questions of idealized Western standards of beauty and power structures of the gaze. While her work has obvious ties to other artists—Lisa Yuskavage comes to mind, but more on her later—perhaps it is best to locate these paintings within the greater, psychological debate surrounding body image and body dysmorphia. Body Dysmorphia Disorder (BDD) causes a distorted view of the body and creates anxiety about one’s appearance. In part, BDD is affected by dominant images of female beauty that are circulated so constantly by the media: slim, white, and impossibly attractive. In the recent article “‘Digitized Dysmorphia’ of the female body: the re/disfiguration of the image,” Isabelle Coy-Dibley examines the way that Western beauty and sex industries have “hyper-sexualized society” through their use of the female body as a “currency.”[3] She writes: “Rather than being naturally beautiful in a person’s own individuality, society continually prescribes a Westernized standard of beauty that unceasingly narrows, not just in waist size, but in the generic, homogenous perception of beauty it idealizes, which is often considered as white and able-bodied.”[4] In today’s image-culture, where the photograph governs all, one competes not just against media representations but also against one’s own self as documented across social media platforms.

“[Internet] technology,” writes Coy-Dibley, “frequently emphasizes and perpetuates certain standardizations of femininity.”[5] It also allows for one to constantly edit his or her digital avatar to promote a particular look. The ability to change one’s look for itself is not the problem, but rather that the expectations are so demanding and defined. Editing for the sake of editing is one process; editing to put forth and uphold unrealistic and narrow beauty norms only serves to further cement those norms.

It is within this framework that we can best situate Broersma’s practice. Early works from the series Knockout seem to directly take on the distortion promoted by the media. Mop-up or Wipeout (2013) appears to be a portrait, though everything figural in the painting is unrecognizable. Nevertheless, the swirling white and peach tones, encircled by a dark chestnut brown, suggest a face, though one that has been filtered excessively. That the face is present but cannot be identified as a face is characteristic of the ways in which digital tools can radically alter reality. With her dynamic and vigorous brushstrokes, Broersma has shown how easily flaws and individuating marks can be smoothed over until the person that remains dissolves into nothing. 

Broersma’s practice explicitly deals with the role of the gaze: Who does the looking and what is seen? But interestingly, these paintings implicate men and women, while earlier feminist works questioned the primacy of the male gaze. In her seminal essay, “Visual Pleasure in Narrative Cinema,” Laura Mulvey details the relationship between the looker (man) and the looked upon (woman):

In a world ordered by sexual imbalance, pleasure in looking has been split between active/male and passive/female. The determining male gaze projects its phantasy on to the female figure which is styled accordingly. In their traditional exhibitionist role women are simultaneously looked at and displayed with their appearance coded for strong visual and erotic impact.[6]

Consider again the odalisque, a woman who would have been actually owned by men. Sensuous representations of her body, such as Ingre’s famous Grande Odalisque (1814), encourage the (male) eye to linger on the female form. Men look; women are to be looked at and shaped for a male audience. Feminist art of the 1960s and 1970s challenged this binary by suggesting new ways of looking. Artists such as Judy Chicago, Hannah Wilke, and Carolee Schneeman defined a new vocabulary for considering the female body. When depicted by female artists, the nude body serves a different purpose.  

There is a striking link between Broersma’s paintings and feminist photographer Cindy Sherman’s Centerfold series. Sherman typically works in series, dressing up in various costumes to construct her scenarios. For the 1981 Centerfolds, she riffed on the centerfolds found in men’s magazines, but instead of sexy, pinup girls, Sherman’s characters look more like vulnerable victims. InUntitled #93 (1981), a girl lies in bed pulling the sheet up to her shoulders, bathed in a bright nighttime light. She stares unflinchingly ahead and looks preoccupied.  With the title "Centerfold" there is the implication of a certain type of representation, but Sherman deliberately upends this preconceived expectation. Similarly, by titling her 2013 series Knockout, Broersma suggests a specific narrative: the woman as a bombshell. In actuality, the series abstracts the female form making it dynamic, aggressive, and at times even frightening.

The association between the body and abstraction remains an essential element in Broersma’s paintings. Trophies is a 2015-16 series of twelve paintings that transform the female body into flora. In Myself as a Bouquet (For You), 2015 [Fig. 1], indistinct corporeal forms are grafted to floral elements suggesting a painful process of metamorphosis. Offset by green and brown leaf-life shapes, these bodily elements are being gifted to us the viewer. While flowers are a typical courtship ritual, here the female body is proffered instead-- much as women are assessed daily. At the center of the bouquet there is even a protruding pink tongue of a salivating suiter. Set against a bright and fanciful yellow backdrop, Broersma’s Myself as a Bouquet... hints at Lisa Yuskavage’s figurative paintings. Yuskavage has developed her “own genre of the female nude,”[7] and her compositions feature cartoonish, nymph-like women, often with exaggerated breasts and thighs. Yuskavage representations are more literal, but both artists inflate and embellish their representations of women to highlight society’s disfigurement of the female body.

Trophies demonstrates a maturation in Broersma’s work which is best exemplified in Pool Party Jitters (2016) [Fig. 3]. Curved soft forms – limbs – are braided together and float against a crystal blue. Intertwining with this mass is blue and white cloth which can be easily read as a swimsuit. Like the earlier Sunbather (Odalisque)Pool Party Jitters, too, negotiates the same themes of beach body culture, body shame, and the extreme pressures placed on women. Unlike its predecessor however, the latter canvas is much more beguiling. Sunbather (Odalisque)’s recognizable lounging woman is a straightforward attack on the values Western society holds dear; Pool Party Jitters instead shows the dissolution of the self, or what happens when those values come to govern all. It is a much more damning portrait of beauty standard’s effects on women at large.

 
Figure 3: Pool Party Jitters, Oil on canvas, 20 x 16 inches, 2016

Figure 3: Pool Party Jitters, Oil on canvas, 20 x 16 inches, 2016

 

Broersma’s practice emerged directly from her own experiences with men, with the world, and with herself. As a result of this controlled engagement, her paintings present ruminations on white female beauty. Her color pallet is (mostly) limited to rosy pinks, peachy oranges, and hues of beige. There are few paintings that do use darker colors such as Hold Me Tight and Grotto, but as both of these look especially vegetal, the connections between organic forms and the human body are obscured. Indeed it could be argued that Grotto is actually just a landscape and not at all figurative. While the lack of diversity is noticeable, it is not necessarily problematic. Broersma is clear to explain that Trophies, in particular, mines her own life experiences: “I manipulate the visual representation of a person to regain agency in how I choose to present myself and the body.”[8] The representation is narrow because she only knows her own experiences. These are, consequently, intensely intimate images.

Equally thought-provoking is this idea of the individual in art. So much of art’s history has focused on the unique genius; only recent modern studies have cast aside biography-centric approaches in favor of new methodologies. Not to spend too much time belaboring this point, but nonetheless it is interesting to consider how large a role biography plays in Broersma’s practice. Instead of denying any personal resonance with the works created, Broersma embraces (and heightens) the biographical elements. Her practice is truly a return to earlier techniques and considerations but viewed through a decidedly contemporary lens.

Like other feminist artists, Broersma asks that both men and women look, and look closely. All the looking, and the supersaturation of the present day image-culture, ensures that we remain hyper aware of what it means to be scrutinized and ogled. But Broersma also asks that we look at ourselves and that we try and see through a true mirror. (And that we root out that which causes distortion.) By using her body and life to refract these experiences, Broersma sacrifices privacy in the name of dialogue and protest. The works make clear that she will not stand idly by; she will not be gazed into submission.

 --

[1] Artist’s statement as found on the artist’s website.

[2] IBID.

[3] Isabelle Coy-Dibley, “‘Digitized Dysmorphia’ of the female body: the re/disfiguration of the image.” Palgrave Communications, 05 June 2016. Accessed 6 October 2016. http://www.palgrave-journals.com/articles/palcomms201640

[4] IBID.

[5] IBID.

[6] Laura Mulvey, “Visual Pleasure in Narrative Cinema.” Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings. Edited by Leo Braudy and Marshall Cohen. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999) p. 837

[7] “Lisa Yuskavage – Biography.” David Zwirner. (Accessed on 12 October 2016) http://www.davidzwirner.com/artists/lisa-yuskavage/biography/

[8] Artist’s statement as found on the artist’s website.

 

 

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Publication Fellowship from Peripheral Vision Arts

Posted on July 11, 2016

 

The inaugural Publication Fellowships from Peripheral Vision Arts were recently announced and I am pleased to have been awarded a fellowship. 

Peripheral Vision Arts is an online art criticism publication and curatorial platform connecting emerging and mid-career artists, architects, and designers with critics in their fields of specialty. Peripheral Vision collaborates with creators and art writers to publish original content through competitive, merit-based Publication Fellowships. 

An essay on my work will be published in August and you can view more info on Peripheral Vision's website.

Bouquet

Myself As a Bouquet (For You),  oil on canvas, 45 x 36 inches, 2015

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Artillery Magazine Review of Trophies

Posted on May 04, 2016

Artillery_logo41

Virginia Broersma, Pool Party Jitters, 2016

Virginia Broersma, Pool Party Jitters, 2016

VIRGINIA BROERSMA

The Lodge / Los Angeles

In fact, you can’t shrug it off even when Broersma paints a “bad” picture. There were several such grating, dissonant canvases in this latest exhibition, and there were knowingly sour passages in several other works as well. In these places—oddly angled brushstrokes in otherwise brilliantly executed pictures, for instance, or dark figures and objects modeled with a vigorous clumsiness—Broersma slips easily but dramatically from the virtuosic rendering that typifies her approach into something much harsher. Most painters with her skill set would find it almost impossible to compromise such a skill set so deftly and so nastily. But Broersma can—in great part because she needs to.

Broersma is clearly not about the meaning of the picture she’s painting so much as she is the meaning of the way it is painted. Even so, subject matter is no mere armature for her to hang a style on. Like her previous series of self-portraits, her brightly colored pictures of tumbling and cascading forms, which quickly (if never entirely) reveal themselves as body parts, treat the flesh with passionate ambivalence, finding limbs and torsi, skin and meat at once delightful and disgusting. Beholding these piles of sinew immediately inculcates you in the making of choices, however hypothetical: do I consume it or escape it? Do I consume it gustatorily or carnally? Where is the line between sex and food, anyway? Is what I’m fleeing not the presence before me but that very question?

Broersma’s technique, more than her imagery, triggers this inner debate. What she paints may or may not be considered luscious, but she paints it with an imposing lusciousness. She invites us to bite, or kiss, or flee, not her subjects but her paint—or, more accurately, she invites us to embrace her subjects precisely because they cannot be separated from the way they’ve been painted. Is she then extending to us a sense of what it’s like to delight in the act of painting? Not really. She’s extending to us the power of paint itself, a substance whose emphatic facture renders it almost exotic at this moment of digital (that is, flat-screened) ubiquity. Such a conflation of paint and flesh reclaims a tradition that goes back through Soutine, Courbet, Magnasco to Titian and the Venetian School. In our consumerist yet puritanical age, this tradition seems at once perverse and liberating—especially in Broersma’s hands.

 

 

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DITHYRAMBIC - Solo show

Posted on August 26, 2014

at AUTONOMIE PROJECTS

 

I am pleased to announce my solo exhibition DITHYRAMBIC at Autonomie Projects. 

Opening reception: Saturday, September 13, 2014, 7-10pm

Autonomie is located at: 4742 West Washington Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90016

https://goo.gl/maps/2BDhb

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Please Join us Saturday, September 13th from 7-10pm for the solo exhibition of Virginia Broersma in the Main Gallery and new works by Becca Shewmake in the Project Room. 

MAIN GALLERY

Virginia Broersma: Dithyrambic

The paintings of Broersma occupy an enigmatic space where anthropomorphic gestures collide with classical genre painting. Her bent, twisted and twirling forms weave the figure and the environment together into a seamless pictorial event. Executed in a manner that is both haptic and subtle, Broersma's painterly vocabulary mixes a reserved sensualism with dithyrambic operations. As such, her unique take on classical themes like 'the bathers' and 'the odalisque' challenge not only traditional ideas of beauty and design, but they explore the shifting space between figurative naturalism and the (post-)modern preoccupation with formlessness.

As such, Broersma's work avoids being read as a display of figurative pathos or another return to painterly 'heroism'. Instead, her images develop a dialectics of dissonance based on revealing and concealing, veiling and unveiling, determined mark marking and improvisational actions. These dynamic qualities, which represent forms coming in and out of being, also reveal a second set of questions concerning the phenomenal quality of what is being pictured. That is to say, a closer reading of Broersma's images quickly reveals a 'catalog' of pictures that stand twice removed from the subjects they portray. Of course, this is the case not only because painting is always already a form of mediation, but because the subjects in her source material hint at museum lighting techniques and the staged quality of the cultural imaginary in the era of hyper-mediation.

By making us aware of the split between the affect of 'staging' and the rhetoric of display, Broersma's work asks us to question not just how we think about classical themes as a reflection of socio-political and gendered interests, but also how iconic images are constructed as a total experience that extends well beyond the confines of what is 'pictured'. In other words, it is not just the aura of the image that serves as the raw material for Broersma's art practice, but rather, an engagement with the very techniques that are used to produce the 'quality' of the iconic for public consumption.

Thus, Broersma is not just another history painter of sorts, or someone who is interested in painting figurative morphologies, even though both of these concerns are central to her art practice. Rather, what we find at play in Broersma's imagery, beyond a certain painterly opulence, is that her images court an indefinable space that consists of endless questions about canonical works and their conditions of presentment. This paradoxical doublebind - of reworking historical or academic themes in order to make them more porous and less identifiable - is what gives Broersma's project a unique sense of purchase in the contemporary moment.

Composed of inerrant indices of the iconographic, her paintings work to reconfigure the status attributed to the image as a cultural artifact by directly addressing the crisis of terminal metastasis known as pluralism. Not only that, but Broersma's oeuvre challenges the cult-like 'status' of the image by sampling techniques and imagery from the most over-determined styles of picture making and then making- them-over into new models of plastic expression.

What we witness in such moments is the apotheosis of the 'grand manner' as it becomes subject to the mutations of improvisation over and against the auratic techniques of exhibition design as well as the 'quality' of mechanical and/or digital reproduction. Most importantly however, Broersma's work takes up this position as a process of open-ended play, providing a polyvalent reading of history painting that is a rare and honest achievement in a period of art production that often derides the codex of historical themes as retrograde or simply démodé. In Broersma's theater of pictorial pleasures, the themes of modernity take on a new vitality, not just for engaging with the past, but for opening up new avenues in thinking about the pictorial problematic in the early twenty-first century.

autonomieprojects.com

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